For detailed information on reference and in-text citation formatting, visit the NIC Library's Citation Guide page.
Proper citation requires two steps: in-text citations in the body of your paper, and references in your works cited or reference list.
For example, take a look at an in-text citation to the same source in APA and MLA style:
APA: (Smith, 1998, p. 639)
MLA: (Smith 639)
In APA, you are expected to include the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number if you directly quoting a source. In MLA, you would just include the author’s name and the page number, with no comma.
In Chicago style, you would use a superscript number in your sentence and a footnote to cite your sources. A footnote for the same source referred to above would look like this:
1. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639-40.
Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., & Tamim, R. M. (2014). Detecting bias in meta-analyses of distance education research: Big pictures we can rely on. Distance Education, 35(3), 271-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2015.957433
Bernard, Robert M., et al. "Detecting Bias in Meta-Analyses of Distance Education Research: Big Pictures We Can Rely On." Distance Education, vol. 35, no. 3, 2014, pp. 271-93. Education Research Complete, doi:10.1080/01587919.2015.957433.
Bernard, Robert M., Eugene Borokhovski, and Rana M. Tamim. "Detecting Bias In Meta-Analyses Of Distance Education Research: Big Pictures We Can Rely On," Distance Education 35, no. 3 (2014): 271-293, accessed April 8, 2015, http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=99195345&site=eds-live&scope=site
Be certain to check assignment guidelines for which style you should be using!
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