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APA Style Guide: 7th Edition

Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples

When referencing Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples, reference list entries are not required. Refer to private letters, memos, email messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, documents that cannot be retrieved, etc. in-text only.

Capitalize most terms related to Indigenous Peoples, including names of specific groups and words related to Indigenous culture, for example: Cree, Ojibwe, and Cherokee; Creation, Elder, and Traditional Knowledge.

To describe Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions that are not recorded, provide as much detail in-text as possible. If you spoke with an Indigenous person directly, include the person's full name, the nation or Indigenous group to which they belong, as well as their location or any other relevant information.

Formatting Examples

Two examples of formatting an in-text citation for the reference item below are: 

Reference Information Personal interview with Anna Grant in April, 2019
In-text Citation Guidelines

Examples                                                                                                           

1.

First initial and last name, nation and location, followed by "personal communication", and the full date placed in brackets at the end of a sentence.

 

Consider this a sentence (Anna Grant, Haida Nation, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, personal communication, April 2019).                        

2.

Quote, beginning with first name and last name, nation and location; "personal communication" and full date at the end of the sentence in brackets.

 

According to Anna Grant, "consider this a direct quote" (Haida Nation, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, personal communication, April 2019).

Remember, in-text citation formatting may change depending on a number of factors.

See Number of Authors, Publication Date, and Page/Paragraph Number or Heading for more information.  

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