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APA Style Guide: 7th Edition

Brightspace, with Author


Author, A. A. (Year, Month followed by day of publication). Name of document in italics and sentence case: Capitalize first letter of subtitle [Format]. Brightspace. Retrieved from



Ryan, S. (2019). Proficient use of Microsoft Office [Class lecture notes]. Brightspace. Retrieved from


  • Author, A. A. = Author's surname followed by first initial and middle name (when applicable).
    • If there is a clear author listed, use them in your in-text citations and references.
    • Do not assume that your instructor is the author. If in doubt, ask your instructor for clarification.
    • If no author is stated, use North Island College in place of author.
  • List the full date, if available. If no date is visible, use the abbreviations n.d.
    • Do not assume that the current year is the date of publication.
  • [Format] examples: [PowerPoint slides], [Lecture notes on Microsoft Office] (when no title is listed), [Excel spreadsheet], etc.
  • Retrieval statement should be the login URL of your institution's Brightspace.

Examples of formatting an in-text citation for this item are outlined below:

Reference Information

Ryan, S. (2019). Proficient use of Microsoft Office [Class lecture notes]. Brightspace. Retrieved from

In-text Citation Guidelines



Parenthetical citation example


Consider this a paraphrased sentence (Ryan, 2019).                        


Narrative citation example


According to Ryan (2019), "consider this a direct quote" (para. 2).

Remember, in-text citation formatting may change depending on a number of factors.

See Number of Authors, Publication Date, and Page/Paragraph Number or Heading for more information.