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APA Style Guide: 7th Edition

How to Incorporate Page and Paragraph Number, Heading or Time Stamp

When directly quoting information from a resource, you must include a page number, paragraph number, heading or time stamp in your in-text citation. If you are paraphrasing from a large document or book, it is recommended that you include a page number, paragraph number, heading or time stamp. When referring to a resource broadly, you are not required to include page/paragraph numbers, headings or time stamps.

  • Page numbers must be placed within parentheses at the end of a quoted statement
  • Use p. when referring to a single page
  • Use pp. and a dash between page numbers when referring to multiple consecutive pages
  • Use pp. and a comma between page numbers when referring to multiple non-consecutive pages

For example:

(Smith, 2018, p. 20)

OR

In his latest work, Smith (2018) suggests that children do not respond to time-out methods of discipline (pp.10,12). 

  • When a resource does not have page numbers, use paragraph numbers or heading titles instead
  • Use para. when referring to a paragraph
  • Use section when referring to heading or section
  • Use a combination of both a section name and para. number if the section includes many paragraphs
  • When a heading is too long to cite in full place quotation marks around its abbreviate form

For example:

(Smith, 2018, para. 3)

OR

In his latest work, Smith (2018) revealed that "over the past 10 years, children have stopped responding to traditional methods of discipline" ("Methods of Discipline" section).

OR

"Over the past 10 years, children have stopped responding to traditional methods of discipline" (Smith, 2018, "Methods of Discipline" section, para.5).

 

 

For audiovisual works (audiobook, podcast, video, etc.):

  • Provide a time stamp that marks the beginning of the quote
  • Time stamps should follow this format: H:MM:SS

For example:

(Smith, 2018, 2:12)

OR

In his latest work, Smith (2018) revealed that "over the past 10 years, children have stopped responding to traditional methods of discipline" (2:12).

  • If you are making a broad reference to an entire work, while not directly quoting or paraphrasing specific material from the work, include only the author and year in your in-text citation
  • When you are paraphrasing from a short article or document, it is not necessary to include page, paragraph, heading or time stamp information

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