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APA Style Guide: 7th Edition

Number and Type of Author

In-text citation rules change depending on a series of factors; for example, works written by one author and works written by 3 authors require different in-text citation formats.

Select a tab below for more in-depth detail regarding in-text citation examples.

When a work has 1 author, list the author's last name in every in-text citation.

Examples:

  1. Lukeman (2002) suggests there is a benefit to asking plot questions and looking at character detail.
  2. Whether it is in a positive or negative way, a reader needs to care about the characters enough to keep reading (Lukeman, 2002).

When a resource has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in your text. Use 'and' to combine the names if it is within the narrative or '&' to combine the names if it is in parentheses.

Examples:

  1. Lukeman and Rose (2003) suggest there is a benefit to asking plot questions and looking at character detail.
  2. Whether it is in a positive or negative way, a reader needs to care about the characters enough to keep reading (Lukeman & Rose, 2003).

If you are referring to a resource with 3 or more authors, include only the surname of the first author followed by 'et al.' and the year for each in-text citation.

Examples:

Initial and subsequent in-text citations:

  1. Levitt et al. (2018) believe that researchers should appreciate the value of presented quantitative findings.
  2. Researchers should appreciate the value of presented quantitative findings (Levitt et al., 2018).

 

If you are referring to a source that has no author:

  • The title moves to the author position in both the reference and in-text citation. 
  • If the title is long, shorten it for the in-text citation.
  • If the title of the work is italicized in the reference, italicize it in the in-text citation.
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference, use double quotation marks around the title.
  • Capitalize these titles using title case.

Examples:

Title italicized in reference format:

  1. Polar ice caps have decreased substantially between 2010 and 2015 (Climate Change Crisis, 2018).
  2. Climate Change Crisis (2018) confirms that climate change is real based on the declining size of the polar ice caps between 2010 and 2015.

Title not italicized in reference format:

  1. Polar ice caps have decreased substantially between 2010 and 2015 ("Climate Change Crisis," 2018)
  2. "Climate Change Crisis" (2018) confirms that climate change is real based on the declining size of the polar ice caps between 2010 and 2015.

 

When multiple references have the same author and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year in both the reference list entry and the in-text citations. For example:

Guenther (2010a)

(Guenther, 2010b)

If there is no date listed, include a hyphen before the lowercase letter as follows:

Marriott (n.d.-a)

(Marriott, n.d.-b)

 

If you are referring to a resource with a group, organization, or corporate author, you should spell out the name of the organization each time it appears in an in-text citation; however, if it is a name that can be readily identified through an abbreviation, you may abbreviate the name in subsequent citations.

Example:

Initial in-text citation:

(Canada Revenue Agency [CRA], 2018)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(CRA, 2018)

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