In-text citation rules change depending on a series of factors; for example, works written by one author and works written by 3 authors require different in-text citation formats.
Select a tab below for more in-depth detail regarding in-text citation examples.
When a work has 1 author, list the author's last name in every in-text citation.
When a resource has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in your text. Use 'and' to combine the names if it is within the narrative or '&' to combine the names if it is in parentheses.
If you are referring to a resource with 3 or more authors, include only the surname of the first author followed by 'et al.' and the year for each in-text citation.
Initial and subsequent in-text citations:
If you are referring to a source that has no author:
Title italicized in reference format:
Title not italicized in reference format:
When multiple references have the same author and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year in both the reference list entry and the in-text citations. For example:
If there is no date listed, include a hyphen before the lowercase letter as follows:
If you are referring to a resource with a group, organization, or corporate author, you should spell out the name of the organization each time it appears in an in-text citation; however, if it is a name that can be readily identified through an abbreviation, you may abbreviate the name in subsequent citations.
Initial in-text citation:
(Canada Revenue Agency [CRA], 2018)
Subsequent in-text citations:
Library Contact & Hours | Privacy