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APA Style Guide: 7th Edition

Personal Communication, General

When referencing general personal communication, reference list entries are not required. Refer to private letters, memos, email messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, documents that cannot be retrieved, etc. in-text only. 

Formatting Examples

Two examples of formatting an in-text citation for this item are outlined below:

Reference Information Personal interview with Robert Cole on September 8, 1981
In-text Citation Guidelines



First initial and last name, followed by "personal communication", and the full date placed in brackets at the end of a sentence.


Consider this a sentence (R. Cole, personal communication, September 8, 1981).                        


Quote, beginning with first initial and last name; "personal communication" and full date at the end of the sentence in brackets.


According to R. Cole, "consider this a direct quote" (personal communication, September 8, 1981).

Remember, in-text citation formatting may change depending on a number of factors.

See Number of Authors, Publication Date, and Page/Paragraph Number or Heading for more information.  

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