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APA Style Guide: 7th Edition

Formatting: Quotations

Direct quotations are copied word for word from an original source; they can be a useful and powerful way to support your ideas. It's good practice to use direct quotes sparingly in academic writing, and only under certain circumstances.

The following guidelines from the University of Toronto recommend using direct quotes in cases where:

  • the language of the passage is particularly elegant, powerful or memorable
  • you want to confirm the credibility of your argument by enlisting the support of an authority on your topic
  • the passage is worthy of further analysis
  • you wish to argue with someone else's position in considerable detail

For more information regarding how to use direct quotations as well as examples of their use, please refer to the NIC Library & Learning Commons Plagiarism guide

  • Use single quotation marks around a quote that falls within a quote unless the quote falls within a block quotation
  • Any punctuation that is part of a quote within a quote should be placed inside the single quotation marks


"When you are quoting from a resource and that quote includes an internal quote, 'use single quotation marks for the internal quote!' and include punctuation for that internal quote within the single quotation marks."

  • When quoting, always provide the author, year and specific page or paragraph number in the citation
  • Incorporate the quote within the text
  • Enclose the quotation with double quotation marks
  • Include the full citation in the same sentence as the quotation


Always reference the page number when it is provided:

  1. Lougheed and Smith (2019) stated that the practitioners were "incorrigible" (p. 47).
  2. "Blake and Longmen were incorrigible - and everyone knew it" (Lougheed & Smith, 2019, p. 47).

Reference the paragraph when a page number is not provided:

  1. According to Cleveland et al. (2016), "consider this a direct quote" (para. 3).
  2. "Consider this a direct quote" (Cleveland et al., 2016, para. 3).



If a quote consists of 40+ words:

  • do not use quotations marks to enclose the quote
  • insert the quote as a block of text separate from the main body of your paper
  • indent the block .5 inches from the left margin
  • double-space the entire block quotation and do not add any space above or below it
  • place the in-text citation after the ending punctuation of the block quote OR cite the author and date in the narrative before the quotation

Block Quote with Author at the Beginning

Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon (note that in the in-text citation, there is no space between the colon and the page number).

As tabulated by Kuhn (1970:71), the results show...

Lyoob, Rossetti, and Chen (2013) noted:

Many software providers take advantage of these developing technologies to provide new cloud computing services or transform their existing products into the cloud. Since the term cloud could refer to any infrastructure, platform or software that serves for cloud computing, every component in the cloud may be provided as a service. (p. 34)

Block Quote with Author at the End

Cyber threats are not the only challenge to cloud computing:

While security has been a major topic of interest, reliability is a much bigger concern. Cloud computing is based on Internet access, so a fast and constant Internet connection is critical to cloud computing solutions. Therefore, it is imperative to ensure the enterprise's connectivity to the Internet is well-established and that there are backup connections in case of connectivity failure. (Lyoob et al., 2013, pp. 35-36)